1 April 2022
  • Share

In his regular PharmaTimes feature, sustainability columnist Joe Newcombe looks out to pharma’s cleaner, greener horizon.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) first entered human use in the late 1920s and were popularised in the 1930s as ‘miracle refrigerants’.

CFCs found myriad uses, including as propellants for products from whipped cream to pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). By the 1980s, however, they were found to be contributing to a sizeable hole in Earth’s ozone layer. Adulation turned to vilification, and production of CFCs was essentially halted entirely in 2010 under the terms of the Montreal Protocol.


Read the full column in PharmaTimes

See Joe's other PharmaTimes columns.


As featured in



Joseph is a patent attorney working in the chemistry and materials field assisting in the drafting and prosecution of UK and European patents. He also has experience in opposition and appeal proceedings before the EPO and the management of national/regional phase entry of international patent applications.

Sign up to our newsletter: Forward - news, insights and features

Our People

Our IP specialists work at all stage of the IP life cycle and provide strategic advice about patent, trade mark and registered designs, as well as any IP-related disputes and legal and commercial requirements.


Contact Us

We have an easily-accessible office in central London, as well as a number of regional offices throughout the UK and an office in Munich, Germany.  We’d love to hear from you, so please get in touch.